Specialty Floor Types
Repair & Care Of Floors
Hardwood Flooring Types, Options - Construction
Need Help Choosing Wood Floors? Type Of Subfloor Plays A Role
Understanding how your home was built and the sub floor type will often dictate what type of hardwood floor you should be seeking. Our illustration on the right gives us an idea where some products can and cannot be used. The brown area represents the soil line and red common floor joist systems.
Considering most home construction in the United States uses plywood over floor joist systems, the preferred choice is traditional ¾ inch solid hardwood. Providing they are taken care of properly, these products will provide the best longevity as they can be refinished many times over. Multiple color changes are possible, but requires very knowledgeable professionals for optimum results.
Engineered hardwood flooring is often chosen with those that have a concrete sub floor system, or those homes on slab with no basement below. By no means does this limit engineered products to concrete only. Others reasons they are chosen with wood subfloors include better performance with radiant floor heating systems and the need for lower vertical height flooring. With both engineered and solid many wonder how many times their floors can be sanded.
Throwing in another motive for using engineered with wood sub floors may just be a result of product availability and not the sub floor requirement. Let's say you found a style or look to die for and it's only available in the engineered form. Trying to duplicate with a solid ¾ inch hardwood is possible. Even so, chances are great the costs and inconvenience will rule out doing so, not to mention getting the desired result.
Both solid and engineered flooring can be obtained prefinished or unfinished with the latter requiring sanding and finishing. Times have changed with styles as common strip flooring is no longer the only choice. Wider plank floors, hand scraped and distressed floors have seen great demand the last ten to twelve years. For more we suggest visiting remodeling with hardwood floors and what kind of hardwood species one can obtain.
Related to styles we can include types of floors designed for those wishing to do the work themselves. Lock and fold floating hardwoods, found at every home center these days have become extremely popular. However, you will find more variety and better quality with a full service hardwood flooring dealer.
For the more discriminating buyer, upgraded styles can be chosen in the form of adding hardwood borders or medallions, both hardwood and stone. The options continue with custom hardwood floor designs, custom hand scraping, or distressed appearances. Even more are high end parquet patterns and herringbone.
Prefinished Hardwood - Micro Bevels
If you're new to hardwood floors you may be wondering "why can't I get a hardwood floor without all those ugly dirt catchers?" For the most part, many retailers don't offer prefinished square edge products with exceptions being longstrip floating type floors shown on the right. The majority are square edge, but there's a preference among some not to have all those little pieces (fillets) that make up the floor, common in longstrip type construction.
One benefit to micro beveled floors many don't consider is their ability to trap dirt or grit that will scratch any hardwood floor. Some manufacturers produce micro bevels and others offer a larger version often called eased edges.
Another advantage of micro beveled or eased edge floors rarely discussed is they won't show seasonal movement compared to a sanded and finished floor. If you're seeking that flawless appearance year round and cannot afford to keep your home's interior relative humidity constant, these types of hardwoods are the answer, providing they're installed correctly or the product is milled with quality in mind.
You may find some manufacturers offering square edge solid 3/4" hardwoods. However we urge you to do a thorough investigation before making that purchase. Common complaints include overwood and/or sock catchers. Micro beveled floors are abundant because prefinished manufacturers cannot produce a true square edge from a solid 3/4" product. Beveled styles are produced to mask imperfections in milling. In other words, adjacent pieces of hardwood after installation will have slight vertical height differences.
Our Little Secrets Many Don't Tell You. Random Length² or One Size Lengths?
All manufacturers are different. Some may offer random length or one set length
Some confuse one length hardwoods as being too uniform in appearance. One length products should be installed randomly. Creating the random look begins with using different sized boards at the starting area. They should be cut randomly with no particular measurement used. Once starter boards are cut and full length pieces are installed adjacent to them, a random look appears as shown in the first illustration below.
Why Choose Solid Hardwood Flooring?
Most people recognize quality with solid hardwood. They are more inclined to go with what they perceive as a better quality building material. The products are more often used in construction with wood subfloors or those built with floor joist systems; common in northern states with basements below. Installation calls for nailing and stapling with proper hardwood flooring tools.
What Thickness Is Solid Hardwood?
More traditional solid hardwoods are available in thickness of 3/4 of one inch. This has become more of a norm but thinner products are also chosen for a number of reasons; chiefly because of the cost. Thinner solid hardwoods start at 5/16 of one inch with more selections at 3/8 to 1/2 inch. If you are seeking appearance and more of a traditional look, most 3/4" solids offer longer lengths with the exception being many imported Chinese hardwoods today. Some have specifications calling for 12 to 48 inch lengths only.
More traditional or mass produced prefinished and unfinished hardwood flooring in the 3/4" format are generally described as random 12 - 84 inch lengths. The numbers may vary slightly. Random in this case is defined as boards starting at 12 inches with maximum lengths of 84 inches, with those in between having no set measurement. This can be misleading because grade can also play a role. A lower grade will often bring in shorter overall lengths. On the other hand, some unfinished manufacturers have the capacity to custom mill if one desires longer set lengths, thus avoiding the smaller pieces.
Moving on to thinner solid hardwoods, specifically prefinished, overall lengths generally run shorter. Some may still say 12 - 84 but we've found a considerable amount of shorter pieces can be mixed in. Other manufacturers may call for 12 -60" or only 12 - 48; prevalent with BR111 and Scandian exotic hardwoods. Much like the solid 3/4" product, thin domestic hardwoods can be specified with longer lengths if you can find the source. Imports are more unlikely unless you're seeking a large quantity.
The most common selected solid hardwood is still the traditional 2 1/4" width, also known as strip flooring. The more recognized prefinished manufacturers offer widths ranging from 2 1/4" up to five, and sometimes seven. On the other hand, mills that saw unfinished flooring can provide 1 1/2" up to twenty, but will depend on the species as some hardwood species do not perform well over a certain width.
When shopping for prefinished solid hardwoods, grade is rarely specified. For instance looking in a flooring store and asking what grade a particular prefinished floor may be is likely to bring blank looks. The salesman often has to call the manufacturer because he doesn't have the information in his pricing and spec sheet. Most all prefinished manufacturers do sell solid hardwoods that will be more uniform in color and appearance (occasional ugly or dark/light boards not included) unless otherwise specified.³ Exceptions being cabin or tavern grades that rarely carry warranties.
Other Solid Hardwoods
For the discriminating buyer, high end solid parquet and herringbone floors can also be chosen but most will require sanding and finishing on the jobsite. Thicknesses vary from 5/16" up to 3/4 of one inch. Pattern styles are unlimited with custom orders.
What Are Engineered Floors?
Engineered hardwood floors are constructed similar to that of basic plywood with the top surface being the actual hardwood. Products come in two to ten ply construction depending on the manufacturer. On the right a cross layer view of a higher quality product is shown with a thick wear layer and numerous alternating plies.
Engineered hardwoods have been given a bad rap over the years because they all looked basically similar. Earlier versions had one boring looking appearance in that all were rotary peeled. Rotary peeled hardwoods offer a plywood surface appearance. Some like it, others don't.
In recent years several high quality manufacturers have been offering solid sawn engineered hardwoods. Solid sawn exhibits the appearance of traditional 3/4" solid hardwoods many of us are accustomed to.
Different Looks With Engineered Floors
Unlike solid hardwood floors, engineered products take on three different appearances depending in how they were manufactured. Other differences can be described best by throwing in the longevity (depends on care and other influences) factor which is calculated by the thickness of the wear layer. In order, solid sawn hardwoods will last longer than rotary peeled and sliced cut (not shown).
My Builder Says It's Junk!
Ask any craftsman, builder, or installer from the old school what they think about engineered flooring and the answers will likely be the same. Sure, there are many low priced engineered floors out there sold in places like Carpet One, Lowe's, and smaller retail stores. They have their place and people buy the stuff in droves.
Times Have Changed With Quality
Times have changed with engineered flooring. Many manufacturers have increased the wear layer that will result in some engineered floors lasting just as long as traditional solid 3/4 inch flooring. One of the most important factors contributing to the longevity of any hardwood floor is the amount of refinish able material.
Solid 3/4" hardwoods have approximately 1/4 of an inch above the tongue and groove construction. Once it is sanded to that level, nails or staples begin to appear and should be replaced. The better and thicker engineered hardwoods have 1/8 to 3/16" of an inch above the tongue and groove. Illustration right.
How Many Times Can The Floor Be Refinished?
How many times an engineered hardwood can be refinished should be a thought for those that plan on living with their new hardwood floor more than 10-20 years, but will depend on what you perceive as needing refinishing. Minor scratches, dings and dents add to the character of hardwood flooring. Some are fine by the added character that comes along with age and use, others may not be.
If you're seeking near perfection and desire a flawless appearance, your floors may need refinishing every five years. Choosing a product with the thickest wear layer should be considered. With the right professionals and a flat subfloor these can be successfully refinished at least two, possibly three times. Color changes may reduce this number. Finally, engineered products are more stable (minimal if any expansion and contraction) than solid hardwood due to the way they are constructed. They are often recommended⁴ for in floor radiant heating systems as well.
Choosing which thickness of engineered flooring is often a confusing one for consumers. Overall thickness of engineered floors will vary from 1/4" to 3/4" depending on what brand or manufacturer. The most common thickness seems to be 3/8" or 1/2" Which one to choose? As we've already mentioned the wear layer should be given priority in some situations.
Other factors that can come into play would include adjoining types of floor covering. Ceramic tile usually finishes at 3/8" in vertical height after thin set is applied under the tiles.⁵ For engineered hardwoods over 1/2" in thickness, some prefinished trim moldings or thresholds rarely fit right without some adjustments.
More Stable Than Traditional Hardwood
Engineered floors are the ideal solution for hardwood flooring on concrete, and there are other benefits. Most recognized is the dimensional stability of the way they are constructed. Each ply layer is pressure glued and set in the opposite direction. For those that are concerned with high humidity, engineered hardwoods expand and contract little if any, opposed to solid hardwoods.The Length Factor...Long or Short?
Unfortunately many who purchase engineered hardwoods don't know what they're getting until the floor is being installed. The majority of prefinished engineered hardwoods have limits on lengths at 42 to 48 inches, opposed to most solid hardwoods at 72 to 84 inches. What's worse is some manufacturers may only produce a product with board lengths running as short as 8-15 inches and only up to 33 inches.
Longer lengths are preferred as they offer a more appealing or traditional look on completion. During the shopping process we suggest inquiring about the specifics. Most online companies offer specifications but we've found some to be inaccurate or too generic. Asking a local hardwood flooring dealer is likely to provide better results as they have access to more immediate and accurate information.
How Are They Installed?
Most engineered hardwoods are installed by the glue down or floating floor method. It's important to note; not all engineered products have the same type of installation specifications. For instance, some may be floating, glue direct, or staple only. Manufacturers specify installation applications for a reason, and we suggest following them.
Nearly Perfect Engineered Wood Floor - Acrylic Impregnated
Acrylic impregnated hardwood floors are highly resistant to excessive foot traffic and used predominantly in commercial settings. On another note, in the way these floors are constructed, they are also tolerant of moisture. Often found in shopping malls, restaurants, and bars these products do not require the meticulous care as other hardwood floors, but leaves no reason to skip regular maintenance intervals.Tougher Wood Floors
The impregnation process, enabling the increased durability occurs when liquid acrylics are forced into the pores of the hardwood itself during manufacturing. Voids in the cells of the hardwood are filled and the hardwood cell structure becomes more protected from crushing and water intrusion. The procedure is not a fool proof method of protecting the hardwood completely. Excessive water for a prolonged period of time will affect the characteristics as will damage from falling objects, high heels, stones, and the like.
Colors & More Colors
Acrylic impregnated flooring also offers numerous color possibilities and is also not affected by exposure to light as other hardwood products; exceptions being imported exotics. Coloring is forced into the veneer of the product itself, meaning no re-staining is necessary should the floor need to be refinished at a later date. The color is permanent.Final Thoughts
Unusually thick wear layers may sound attractive if presented to you. Engineered flooring too needs stability in that the underlying ply construction should be equal to or greater than the thickness of the wear layer. While engineered floors expand minimally, a force exists between the top and bottom during changes in relative humidity within the environment. Thick wear layers accompanied with a thinner form of ply construction underneath have been known to cause cupping and or crowning issues.
¹ Floating floors excluded.
² Some manufacturers may indicate random. In recent years many imported hardwood manufacturers have been known to produce other varieties. For instance; 12 - 48 inches in length with 75% measuring at 48. Others may have only three set lengths but specify as random.
³ This has changed over the years as character and distressed type hardwoods have become popular.
⁴ Not all manufacturers warrant engineered hardwoods with radiant heat systems.
⁵ Those considering engineered hardwoods on wood sub floors may run into different ceramic tile heights due to cement backer board installed under the tile.
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